Last modified: 2021-08-27 17:48

Notes to Gopher+


The server side

The server indicates (in Gopher and Gopher+ directory listings) if an item is Gopher+ or not by appending an additional field with a + (or ?) to the directory entry:

1Some old directoryFfoo selectorFhost1Fport1
1Some new directoryFbar selectorFhost1Fport1F+
0Some file or otherFmoo selectorFhost2Fport2F+

The + signals various things:

  1. If a client sends a request with a trailing + the response uses Gopher+ protocol, that is a status code is sent (+ for success, - for failure) and a length indicator.

  2. There is additional information available. This Gopher+ information can be retrieved by appending a ! instead of a +.

  3. If a directory is requested, appending a $ returns all Gopher+ information for all items in the directory.

Gopher+ requests and responses

Old servers may handle Gopher+ requests in any way the choose. They may even send error messages - but could also just reply with a standard reply.

Gopher+ replies differ from Gopher. Gopher+ starts always with a status indicator (+ or -) followed by a response length indicator. Most of the time a client may be able to detect the response protocol from the first line but not always. Therefore, the client should know, if the requested item (or server) supports Gopher+ or not.

Exception: Gopher directories never start with a + (or a -). Therefore it would be safe when clients request directories in Gopher+ from a server and the server replies in whatever it understands: Gopher+ or not.

Gopher+ information


Gopher+ information about an item starts always with an +INFO: block:

+INFO: 0Some file or otherFmoo selectorFhost2Fport2F+
 Admin: Frodo Gophermeister <>
 Mod-Date: Wed Jul 28 17:02:01 1993 <19930728170201>
 Text/plain: <10k>
 application/postscript: <100k>

The blocks start with a + in column 1 and entries in a block start with a blank. You can think of Gopher+ information a text blocks looking similar like MIME-headers and items may have any amount of them as the server (or site maintainer) thinks is useful.


Only few things are specified for Gopher+ information:

Block Contains
+INFO: the item's directory entry
+ADMIN: item administrator and last modification date
+VIEWS: lists the different available views (MIME-types)
+ABSTRACT: holds a multi-line text and/or points to a separate item

The +INFO: block starts the Gopher+ information and it mandatory for all items (when listed in a Gopher+ format). It signals the beginning of the Gopher+ information from the +INFO: line. Nothing is said about any further contents of that block.

The +VIEWS: block is not mentioned to be mandatory but UMN gopher insists on it if the item is a file. For directories is can work without. Furthermore, the first listed entry should be the type, which is suggested by the server. (Why not just use the selector from the directory entry to get that?)

Other Gopher+ blocks may be added - and clients are needed to support them.


Gopher+ uses an additional request field to tell the server what precisely is requested.

Plus Section Request
+   requests the item transfer by Gopher+ protocol.
+rep   requests the item's representation (content type) rep.
! 2.5 requests the item's Gopher+ information.
$ 2.7 requests all Gopher+ information about all items in a directory.
? 2.8 seems to be only an item marker, not a request value.
<none>   nothing special, a Gopher0 request.

The ? marker seems to be used for dynamic items. Clients have to get and interpret the item's +ASK: block to get the input form.

Directory requests have some interesting variations depending on the plus selector.

The ! an be used to get Gopher+ information about any other item too. Both, ! and $ may be followed by a list of Gopher+ blocks the client wants, e.g. $+VIEWS+ABSTRACT (2.7). But section 2.7. says also that

+rep is used to request a certain content representation of the item (today we call that "content-type"). If the content-type doesn't exist the client gets an error message.

Client implementations

Since Gopher+ is optional and servers support Gopher0 too, client may run a mixed mode: collect item meta information by Gopher+ using $ requests and get items by regular Gopher protocol. Using both version may help implementing Gopher+ in old clients.